Analysis of a modern state of asphaltene, resin, parrafin substances depositions formation and recycling problem in petroleum industry

Valiev Dinar Z. Ph.D. student, project engineer Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies, Kazan Federal University
Kemalov Alim F. Sc.D., professor, head of department of high-viscosity oils and natural bitumen Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies, Kazan Federal University
Kemalov Ruslan A. Ph.D., assistant professor of department of high-viscosity oils and natural bitumen Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies, Kazan Federal University

In this paper, possible methods for the prevention and disposal of waste sediments of asphaltene, resin and paraffin substances (ARP-S) are systematized. The practical importance of the rational use of the existing methods for prevention of ARP-S sediments occurrence, as well as the recycling methods are represented. The practical significance is considered based on the examples of Russian and foreign enterprises. The formation of ARP-S sediments is possible during wells drilling, as well as during operation, well workover and cleaning of drainage tanks. This type of waste is mostly paraffinic, that’s why mechanical method of prevention (pipeline scraper) is adopted. This paper summarizes the existing technologies for recycling and processing of sludges using them as alternative energy sources. The problem of their utilization is now solved by processing in the existing scheme for the preparation of commercial oil. Full utilization of liquid petroleum wastes, even at a single enterprise, provides a reduction in the total amount of petroleum wastes by more than 70% and the return of marketable oil to resource turnover. The paper presents the results of calculations of wastes generation during oilfield construction and operation. Hazardous wastes were considered as environmentally dangerous according to classification. Promising areas of ARP-S sediments processing are presented. 

Materials and methods
To control the sediments of ARP-S, two methods are proposed: prevention of formation and removal of already formed deposits. In the case of the ARP-S sediments and oil wastes formation, the technologies and methods of processing are used: thermal, mechanical, chemical, physical, physicochemical, biological methods; injection into reservoir; using sludge as a raw material. 

In order to avoid formation of such type of wastes like for such type of waste as ARP-S sediments, preventive works are provided. Despite the numerous methods for controlling ARP-S sediments, there is no universal and effective one, since the deposits differ significantly by their properties and composition, what makes it necessary to constantly search for the best methods to prevent and remove ARP-S sediments. Considering the methods of waste disposal, we can say that most enterprises transfer wastes to specialized organizations, and do not use them as a secondary raw material. The activities of enterprises engaged in the processing of ARP-S sediments are mainly aimed at turning this type of wastes into commercial oil and its reusing. 

In connection with the foregoing and with unfavorable trends associated with a decrease in oil reserves and the difficulties of its production, as well as a decrease in the raw material base of components for preservation materials, ARP-S sediments can be considered as valuable, affordable and cheap raw material due to their high organic components content and useful properties. The search for directions on ARP-S sediments processing is highly relevant in the context of expanding in the Russian Federation the resource base of heavy highly viscous and high-paraffinic petroleum, with a high content of resins, asphaltenes and paraffins prone to sedimentation, the production of which will be accompanied by the formation of substantial amount of asphaltene, resin and paraffin substances sediments. The development and implementation of resource-saving technologies for the disposal of ARP-S sediments with the production of marketable products is an important applied task. Its solution will, on the one hand, reduce the technogenic load on natural geosystems by reducing the volume or elimination of petroleum wastes, and on the other hand, will ensure a more rational use of non-renewable natural resources by replacing primary raw materials with secondary ones.
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